4) Solid results were achieved in rural reform.
We issued and implemented the Measures for Separating Land Ownership Rights, Contract Rights, and Management Rights in Rural Areas, and determined, registered, and certified contracted rural land-use rights for more than 53.3 million hectares of land. The determination and registration of integrated housing ownership and land-use rights for rural housing land and rights for collectively owned land designated for construction was accelerated. We drew up the Guidelines on Reforming the Rural Collective Property Rights System, and moved ahead with pilot reforms to grant shareholder rights for rural collective assets as well as trials to permit the sale of land contract rights. We carried out trials in a prudent and orderly fashion to allow rural residents to mortgage their contracted land-use rights and residential property rights. The cases of transferring or mortgaging rural land use rights have continually increased. New types of agribusinesses thrived and their number rose to more than 2.7 million.
6. We further implemented the Three Initiatives and New Urbanization, which has helped reshape and enhance the pattern of urban and rural development.
We fostered synergy between the Three Initiatives (the Belt and Road Initiative, coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, and development of the Yangtze Economic Belt) and the coordinated development of the western, northeastern, central, and eastern regions. We promoted coordinated and integrated regional development and urban-rural development, and increased the quality and standards of New Urbanization. New growth areas, poles, and belts experienced stronger, faster development.
1) The Three Initiatives advanced in a solid and orderly manner.
All provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government actively took part in the Belt and Road Initiative, and initial results were delivered in developing Xinjiang as the core of the Silk Road Economic Belt and Fujian as the core of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road.
In systematically promoting the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, we sped up planning and development of Beijing's sub-administrative center, implemented a number of demonstration projects to relieve Beijing of functions nonessential to its role as China's capital, facilitated coordination in three major areas-transportation, ecological conservation, and industrial development-and enacted a range of major reform measures. We published and implemented the Outline on Developing the Yangtze Economic Belt, continued coordinated efforts to champion environmental protection and eschew large-scale development, accelerated work on building a green, ecological corridor, and fully established a mechanism for inter-provincial consultation and cooperation covering the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the River.
Figure 5. The Belt and Road Initiative
Figure 6. Coordinated Development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region
Figure 7. The Yangtze Economic Belt
2) Implementation of the master strategy for regional development and differentiated development policies for different regions deepened.
We increased efforts to accelerate large-scale development in the western region, with construction beginning on a number of signature projects. A relatively high-pace of economic development was maintained in the central and western regions. A new round of strategies and a number of major policies and measures for revitalizing the northeast were implemented, and reform in key areas, such as SOEs and the investment and business environment, made fresh progress. We underscored the strategic position of the central region, designating it as the country's key advanced manufacturing center, and as the priority area for New Urbanization, the core area for modern agricultural development, the demonstration area for promoting ecological progress, and the key area for comprehensive opening up. The city clusters along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River played a greater role as major growth poles. The eastern region continued to leverage its advantages in transforming and upgrading industries, in pursuing opening up and innovation, and in coordinating land and marine development to generate a constant stream of new drivers for growth and produce new highlights in development.
We introduced guidelines on promoting coordinated development between regions, and continued to improve the system of differentiated regional policies. We ensured the orderly development of major function platforms-such platforms include national experimental zones for integrated, complete reform, state-level new areas and all types of development zones, demonstration zones for industrial relocation, demonstration zones for integrating industrial and urban development, and demonstration airport economic zones. We intensified efforts to combat poverty in old revolutionary base areas, areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities, border areas, and contiguous poor areas. We improved polices and measures for promoting economic and social development and continuing stability in Xinjiang, Tibet, and the Tibetan ethnic areas in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu, and Qinghai provinces.
Box 10: Development of the Four Regions
3) We steadily advanced the development of New Urbanization.
We granted urban residency to more people with rural household registration living in urban areas, and issued a number of key policies in support of this work, such as the guidelines on reform of the household registration system, the policy for implementing the residence certificate system,and the policy for linking increases in the amount of land designated for urban development in a locality to the number of former rural residents granted urban residency there. A total of 16 million people with rural household registration were granted urban residency in 2016. In total, permanent urban residents now account for 57.35% of the population, while the percentage of registered urban residents has reached 41.2%. We planned and developed city clusters in an orderly way, and supported Wuhan and Zhengzhou in developing as national principal cities. We facilitated the development of emerging small- and medium-sized cities as well as small towns with unique features across the country, and extended comprehensive trials of New Urbanization programs to two provinces and 246 cities and towns. Trials for comprehensive reform of small- and medium-sized cities yielded positive results in 61 cities.
Box 11: New Urbanization
7. We intensified environmental protection and energy and resource conservation, securing early achievements in promoting green development.
Energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP fell by 5% and 6.6% respectively, both surpassing annual targets. According to estimated figures, chemical oxygen demand was reduced by 2.6%, ammonia nitrogen emissions by 2.9%, sulfur dioxide emissions by 5.6%, and nitrogen oxide emissions by 4.0%. A year-on-year increase of 2.1 percentage points occurred in the proportion of days with good or excellent air quality for cities at or above prefectural level, while the annual average PM2.5 concentrations in 74 key cities dropped by 9.1%. The proportion of surface water with a national quality rating of Grade III or above rose by 1.8 percentage points year on year, and the proportion of surface water with a rating lower than Grade V, meanwhile, fell by 1.1 percentage points. Water consumption per 10,000 yuan of GDP fell by 5.6%.
Figure 8. Ecological Progress and Green Development (more)